Human Pheromones Experience

Dating can be tons of fun but it can also get discouraging. Worries about being rejected, fearing to open up and being bad at flirting can all interfere with a wonderful experience. So, are you single and ready to have fun on multiple dates? If so, you’re probably researching options for boosting your self-confidence. Human pheromones have eventually showed up during your research. Like many others, you may be skeptical about their effectiveness. The truth is, however, that pheromones can help you accomplish a lot in terms of attraction.

How do Pheromones Work?
Humans and other animals send chemical signals telling others about their mood, sexuality and even hormone levels. These chemical signals are known as pheromones.

The veronasal organ (VNA) found in the nose is responsible for detecting and interpreting the signals. Chemistry and attraction at first sight can easily be attributed to the signals that our bodies send.

One problem stands in the way of this natural mechanism. We work really hard to “erase” the natural pheromones from our skin. Showering, the use of body lotions and perfumes can all mask the attraction chemicals. This is the main reason why the prominence of pheromones has decreased in humans.

Pheromone Perfumes to the Rescue
Since the natural pheromones we produce aren’t in sufficient quantities, various products have been developed for the purpose of increasing physical attraction.

Pheromone perfumes come in all shapes and sizes. Most of these have the pheromones mixed with nice fragrances. The quality of pheromone perfumes will depend on several factors. The quality and the concentration of the pheromonesused is obviously the first and the most important prerequisite for success.

It’s also important to keep in mind that men and women produce different pheromones. Thus, you should choose a product that will help you attract a member of the gender that you’re interested in.

Finally, pay attention to the scent. Apart from being effective, a pheromone fragrance should have a nice scent that will make you feel even more confident.

Dating and Pheromones
Using pheromones when dating will give you multiple benefits.

For a start, pheromones produce instant sexual attraction. You’ll notice that the person you’re dating is particularly drawn to you. They’ll flirt right from the start. This sexual attraction is sub-conscious, which is why pheromones can be so powerful.

Pheromones will improve your mood and make you feel more confident. These auto effects will help you relax, plus you’ll be capable of flirting and having fun without worrying about your performance.

In addition to being great during dates, pheromones can also be used in other social situations. You can easily increase the number of interactions you get in the club by putting your favorite fragrance on.

As already mentioned, the quality of the fragrance matters. Pheromone perfumes aren’t created equal. Some products deliver much more noticeable advantages than others due to the pheromone included in the composition and its concentration. Take some time, do research and compare products side by side. Reading customer testimonials can also simplify the task of picking the right pheromone fragrance and enjoying exciting dates.

Incubation Pheromones

The presence of a brood incubation pheromone has recently been demons- trated (Heinrich, 1973). This does not appear to originate from the brood but is deposited on it. The immature stages of a bumblebee colony are incubated by the adult bees for long periods each day which help maintain them at a relatively high temperature. This incubatory behaviour appears to be re- leased by an odour the queen herself gives to the site when she lays eggs.

The incubation pheromone also seems to guide the queen over short distances to the brood clump in the darkness of the nest, and on approaching the brood clump she palpates it with her antennae before incubating. Queens do not discriminate between incubation sites they have marked themselves and those marked by other queens of her own species. However, Heinrich (1973) found that queens of the two species he was observing (B. vosnesenskii and B. edwardsii) did not incubate brood marked by queens of the other species. When workers are present in the nest they probably also read and respond to the message but this has yet to be demonstrated; perhaps they reinforce it.

Sometimes it is possible to induce workers to rear brood of a bumblebee species other than their own, resulting in colonies populated with workers of more than one species. It would be interesting to see whether workers in such colonies learn to respond to the brood marking pheromone of the other species present.

The brood marking pheromone appears to be relatively involatile; sites and brood clumps marked by the queen remain attractive for several days after the brood has been removed. Probably a signal from the eggs initially releases brood marking behaviour, perhaps as they are laid. But the actual presence of brood is not always necessary for an incubation site to be marked as queens held in captivity sometimes incubate particular spots on the floor of their cages before they have laid any eggs.

The site at which this incubatory pheromone is produced remains to be discovered. A first step would be to mark artificially potential incubation sites with extracts from different parts of the queen’s body and see which release responses.

Pheromones produced by bumblebee brood probably stimulate foraging (page 75) so it is quite possible that a pheromone from the brood itself may contribute towards the signal to incubate. No tests have been made of the relative attractiveness of two brood clumps from one of which the brood has been removed.

Trail pheromone at the nest

Nests of bumblebees are often located at the end of underground tunnels, in the midst of matted vegetation, or among an accumulation of rocks. It is likely that returning foragers would use the odour of the nest to help guide them to it, but bees leaving to forage must have some means of finding their way from the nest to the nest entrance. When bumblebee colonies, housed in nest boxes, are given clean, glass entrance tunnels the bees initially hesitate before using them, and do not readily pass along them until they have been well used, and presumably have acquired the odour of the nest or the bees.

Cederberg (1977) demonstrated that B. terrestris workers both lay and follow odour trails between the nest and nest entrance. The bees were at first restricted to using a narrow path across a sheet of paper placed between nest and nest entrance. They were then given access to the whole sheet of paper but nearly all kept to the trail already established, even when it was angled at a different direction to the original. Presumably, as for honeybees (page 110), the trail pheromone is deposited by the feet and tip of the abdomen.


Alarm Pheromones Explained

The consequence of the exposed sites of their nests, and the speed at which alarm pheromone is dispersed. A. dorsata colonies tend to be gregarious, several often nesting on the high branches of the same tree. Presumably the main advantage of the gregarious nesting is in providing mutual aid in defence against large predators. For this to be possible the alarm pheromones released by a threatened colony must be sufficiently abundant and durable to alert colonies some metres away.

Normally an alarm pheromone of low volatility would have the disadvanta- ge of maintaining individuals in an alert state and distracting them from other activities when danger no longer threatens. Perhaps in the exposed situations in which A. dorsata and A. florea workers release alarm pheromone, even components of low volatility soon cease to be effective. 2-Heptanone is not found in A. dorsata, A. florea or A. cerana although when presented at the nests of the latter two species it elicits alarm behaviour (Morse et al. , 1967).

Pheromone Beekeeping applications

Alarm pheromones can be used in standardized tests to compare the aggressiveness of different colonies, and so can be used as a tool in breeding a more docile strain.

Under certain conditions as when foraging at dishes of sucrose syrup (page 142), honeybees are repelled by alarm pheromone. Attempts have been made to use synthetic alarm pheromone to repel foragers from crops (Free et al., 1985b) in the hope that, if successful, it could be applied just before insecticide on those crops where bees are at risk.

In preliminary experiments isopentyl acetate and 2-heptanone were ap- plied to alternate sunflower heads that had been arranged in a large circle. Immediately after application foraging on the treated heads was greatly diminished, but within 12 minutes had approached the pretreatment level (Fig. 14.1). These initial experiments were followed by field tests. During the first 30 minute period, after high concentrations of isopentyl acetate and 2—heptanone had been applied to field plots of oil seed rape and field bean, foraging was reduced by more than 80% and 40% respectively; but by the second 30 minute period after application most of this repellancy had disappeared (Fig. 14.2).

The transient nature of the repellancy probably arises from the high volatility of the alarm pheromones and more work is necessary to produce a mixture of greater persistence. Preparation of less volatile and more stable propheromones that would release pheromone when exposed to sunlight.

Figure 14.2 Reduction in foraging following application of high concentrations of the alarm pheromone components isopentyl acetate (IPA) and 2-heptanone (2-H) to crops of oil seed rape and field bean (summarized from Free et al. , 1985b).

the field has been suggested (Pickett et al., 1985). A mixture of two of the more recently discovered alarm pheromone components (n—octyl acetate and benzyl acetate, Blum et al., 1978) shows promising results of greater persistency when applied to sunflower heads and appears to be more repellent than a mixture of isopentyl acetate and 2-heptanone (Free et al., 1987c). It has yet to be tested on field crops.

Hopefully, application of synthetic alarm pheromone a few minutes before an insecticide might help reduce any bee losses to acceptable levels. Probably it would only be necessary to apply the alarm pheromone to the borders of the field as foragers leaving or returning to the field would then become aware of it.

Protecting colonies from alien honeybees

Because alarm pheromone repels foragers, and is probably released by a colony defending its honey stores from would-be foragers of other colonies it might also help to repel such alien bees. This has yet to be shown.